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Fermented dairy, lactic acid, and CLA: Dr. Peat’s thoughts on lactic acid bacteria

“The lactic acid bacteria are themselves anti-inflammatory, but if they live in the upper intestine (because of hypothyroidism) they might be able to convert sugar to lactic acid, which would be stressful for the liver. Any lactic acid can promote inflammation, but bacterial DL-lactic acid is worse, so it shouldn’t be used in large amounts.” ~Dr. Peat via e-mail

Lactic acid bacteria seem to be anti-inflammatory. There are several isomers of lactate/lactic acid and they have differing physiological effects. The literature is supportive of the anti-inflammatory effects of lactic acid bacteria, and anecdotal and historical accounts support the literature. The literature also seems to support a positive effect for the lactic acid produced by lactic acid bacteria, which contrasts with Dr. Peat.

In the meantime have a look through the literature below and a look at Lactated Ringer’s Solution.

Time to eat.

De Luis, D. A., Varela, C., de La Calle, H., Cantón, R., de Argila, C. M., San Roman, A. L., & Boixeda, D. (1998). Helicobacter pylori infection is markedly increased in patients with autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis. Journal of clinical gastroenterology, 26(4), 259–63. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9649006

Infection by viral or bacterial pathogens has been suspected in playing a role in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease. Because Helicobacter pylori might be involved in the development of nongastrointestinal conditions such as rosacea, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus, we evaluated the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Fifty-nine patients with autoimmune thyroid disease were included: autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis (n=21), Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (n=18), and Graves’ disease (n=20). Twenty patients with nontoxic multinodular goiter served as controls for nonautoimmune thyroid disease, and 11 patients with Addison’s disease served as controls for nonthyroid endocrine autoimmune disease. The levels of anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined, and a radiolabeled urea breath test were performed. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was markedly increased in the patients with autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis (85.7%), compared with the controls with nontoxic multinodular goiter (40%) and Addison’s disease (45.4%). Infection by H. pylori resulted in increased levels of gastrin, pepsinogen I, and pepsinogen II in the H. pylori-positive groups, compared with the H. pylori-negative groups. A positive linear regression was found between the levels of microsomal autoantibodies and those of anti-H. pylori IgG in patients with autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis (n=21; r=0.79; p < 0.01). Finally, and although the overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was not increased, the anti-H. pylori IgG levels and the results from the breath test were higher in the patients with Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis patients than in the controls. Clearly, the prevalence of H. pylori infection is increased in autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis and results in abnormalities of gastric secretory function. The strong relation between the levels of anti-H. pylori IgG and the levels of microsomal antibodies suggests that H. pylori antigens might be involved in the development of autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis or that autoimmune function in autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis may increase the likelihood of H. pylori infection.

Midolo, P. D. D., Lambert, J. R. R., Hull, R., Luo, F., & Grayson, M. L. L. (1995). In vitro inhibition of Helicobacter pylori NCTC 11637 by organic acids and lactic acid bacteria. The Journal of applied bacteriology, 79(4), 475–479. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.1995.tb03164.x

In this study the effects of both pH and organic acids on Helicobacter pylori NCTC 11637 were tested. Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lact. casei, Lact. bulgaricus, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Bifidobacterium bifidus were assayed for their lactic acid production, pH and inhibition of H. pylori growth. A standard antimicrobial plate well diffusion assay was employed to examine inhibitory effects. Lactic, acetic and hydrochloric acids demonstrated inhibition of H. pylori growth in a concentration-dependent manner with the lactic acid demonstrating the greatest inhibition. This inhibition was due both to the pH of the solution and its concentration. Six strains of Lact. acidophilus and one strain of Lact. casei subsp. rhamnosus inhibited H. pylori growth where as Bifidobacterium bifidus, Ped. pentosaceus and Lact. bulgaricus did not. Concentrations of lactic acid produced by these strains ranged from 50 to 156 mmol l-1 and correlated with H. pylori inhibition. The role of probiotic organisms and their metabolic by-products in the eradication of H. pylori in vivo remains to be determined.

Ohashi, Y., Nakai, S., Tsukamoto, T., Masumori, N., Akaza, H., Miyanaga, N., … Aso, Y. (2002). Habitual intake of lactic acid bacteria and risk reduction of bladder cancer. Urologia internationalis, 68(4), 273–80. doi:58450

INTRODUCTION: A kind of lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, shows antitumor activity in experimental animals. One clinical trial using L. casei showed a significant decrease in the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. So, to Ohashi, Y., Nakai, S., Tsukamoto, T., Masumori, N., Akaza, H., Miyanaga, N., … Aso, Y. (2002). Habitual intake of lactic acid bacteria and risk reduction of bladder cancer. Urologia internationalis, 68(4), 273–80. doi:58450 INTRODUCTION: A kind of lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota, shows antitumor activity in experimental animals. One clinical trial using L. casei showed a significant decrease in the recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. So, to assess the preventive effect of the intake of L. casei, widely taken as fermented milk products in Japan, against bladder cancer, we conducted a case-control study. METHODS: A total of 180 cases (mean age: 67 years, SD 10) were selected from 7 hospitals, and 445 population-based controls matched by gender and age were also selected. Interviewers asked them 81 items. The conditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR). RESULTS: The OR of smoking was 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-2.36). Those of previous (10-15 years ago) intake of fermented milk products were 0.46 (0.27-0.79) for 1-2 times/week and 0.61 (0.38-0.99) for 3-4 or more times/week, respectively. CONCLUSION: It was strongly suggested that the habitual intake of lactic acid bacteria reduces the risk of bladder cancer.assess the preventive effect of the intake of L. casei, widely taken as fermented milk products in Japan, against bladder cancer, we conducted a case-control study. METHODS: A total of 180 cases (mean age: 67 years, SD 10) were selected from 7 hospitals, and 445 population-based controls matched by gender and age were also selected. Interviewers asked them 81 items. The conditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR). RESULTS: The OR of smoking was 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-2.36). Those of previous (10-15 years ago) intake of fermented milk products were 0.46 (0.27-0.79) for 1-2 times/week and 0.61 (0.38-0.99) for 3-4 or more times/week, respectively. CONCLUSION: It was strongly suggested that the habitual intake of lactic acid bacteria reduces the risk of bladder cancer.

Sgouras, D., Maragkoudakis, P., Petraki, K., Martinez-Gonzalez, B., Eriotou, E., Michopoulos, S., … Mentis, A. (2004). In vitro and in vivo inhibition of Helicobacter pylori by Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota. Applied and environmental microbiology, 70(1), 518–26. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=321236&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract

We studied the potential inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (from the fermented milk product Yakult [Yakult Ltd., Tokyo, Japan]) on Helicobacter pylori by using (i) in vitro inhibition assays with H. pylori SS1 (Sydney strain 1) and nine H. pylori clinical isolates and (ii) the in vivo H. pylori SS1 mouse model of infection over a period of 9 months. In vitro activity against H. pylori SS1 and all of the clinical isolates was observed in the presence of viable L. casei strain Shirota cells but not in the cell-free culture supernatant, although there was profound inhibition of urease activity. In vivo experiments were performed by oral administration of L. casei strain Shirota in the water supply over a period of 9 months to 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice previously infected with H. pylori SS1 (study group; n = 25). Appropriate control groups of H. pylori-infected but untreated animals (n = 25) and uninfected animals given L. casei strain Shirota (n = 25) also were included in the study. H. pylori colonization and development of gastritis were assessed at 1, 2, 3, 6, and 9 months postinfection. A significant reduction in the levels of H. pylori colonization was observed in the antrum and body mucosa in vivo in the lactobacillus-treated study group, as assessed by viable cultures, compared to the levels in the H. pylori-infected control group. This reduction was accompanied by a significant decline in the associated chronic and active gastric mucosal inflammation observed at each time point throughout the observation period. A trend toward a decrease in the anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G response was measured in the serum of the animals treated with lactobacillus, although this decrease was not significant.

Cats, A., Kuipers, E. J., Bosschaert, M. A. R., Pot, R. G. J., Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M. J. E., & Kusters, J. G. (2003). Effect of frequent consumption of a Lactobacillus casei-containing milk drink in Helicobacter pylori-colonized subjects. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics17(3), 429–35. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12562457

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported inhibitory effects of lactic acid bacteria on bacterial pathogens. AIM: To test whether a drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota inhibits Helicobacter pylori growth. METHODS: The in vitro growth inhibition of H. pylori was studied when L. casei was added to plates previously inoculated with H. pylori reference strain NCTC 11637. In an intervention study, 14 H. pylori-positive subjects were given Yakult drink (10(8) colony-forming units/mL L. casei) thrice daily during meals for 3 weeks. Six untreated H. pylori-positive subjects served as controls. H. pylori bacterial loads were determined using the 13C-urea breath test, which was performed before and 3 weeks after the start of L. casei supplementation. RESULTS: In vitro, L. casei inhibits H. pylori growth. This effect was stronger with L. casei grown in milk solution than in DeMan-Rogosa-Sharpe medium. No growth inhibition was shown with medium inoculated with lactic acid, Escherichia coli strain DH5alpha or uninoculated medium. Filtration of L. casei culture before incubation with H. pylori completely abolished the inhibitory effect. Urease activity decreased in nine of the 14 (64%) subjects with L. casei supplementation and in two of the six (33%) controls (P = 0.22). CONCLUSIONS: Viable L. casei are required for H. pylori growth inhibition. This does not result from changes in lactic acid concentration. In addition, a slight, but non-significant, trend towards a suppressive effect of L. casei on H. pylori in vivo may exist.

2 comments… add one
  • Will 05/09/2016, 9:13 pm

    Edward,

    Hello. What do you think of probiotics?

    Thanks,
    Will

  • Edward 12/09/2016, 6:46 am

    Hi Will, I don’t have an opinion on them.

    Best wishes,
    Ed

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